The pipeline network outworn over a substantial part, the increasingly complex water treatment, the drying up of the sources and their pollution are major challenges for water distribution. The greying and often old-world organization structure make it necessary to transfer the knowledge to the new generation and modernize the supporting systems. The pressure on the water price, the cost of waste management and the necessity to reduce the energy consumption have recently come in addition. The global picture requires better insight in water flows and leaks, modernization of the network and organization and specific attention to the environmental aspects such as waste and energy. The good news is that a swift implementation of the necessary changes can be highly profitable for all stakeholders.